Document Type

Original Study


Conservation agriculture is seen as a new solution to environmental degradation and unsusainable water and soil resources. Since the adoption rate for conservation agriculture in Iran is not high, there is a need to design an extension model in this field. The aim of this study was to design an extension model for conservation agriculture in Kermanshah Province, located in the west of Iran. The study involved two groups: experts in conservation agriculture selected via purposeful sampling with a wide range of expertise, and farmers from Ravansar and Sonqor townships in Kermanshah Province, selected through a multistage clustering technique. The findings indicated that the extension model for conservation agriculture should include clear goals and principles, content, training and evaluation methods, and competent change agents. It was also found that the content dimension should emphasize a change in attitudes. Additionally, the evaluation dimension should encourage participatory approaches rather than focusing solely on conventional and summative top-down evaluation. The study suggested that the primary educational program should focus on reinforcing skills, such as setting conservation implements, working with conservation implements, no-tillage, and reduced-tillage. Furthermore, learner-centered education methods should be used for skill training. The results of this study in the areas of appropriate training methods, educational content, and evaluation methods for conservation agricultural extension planning will guide the development of conservation agriculture in the west of Iran.